Državna nižja in srednja glasbena šola (The State Primary and Secondary Music School), the predecessor of today’s Conservatory, was established in May in 1945 in the parish of the Protestant church in Maribor, at Trubarjeva ulica 1. The same year it moved to Maribor Franciscan monastery. The founder and the first principal, in charge of the school until 1962, was the renown cello player Oton Bajde, the pre-war principal of the Cultural Society Glasbena matica. When the new principal, Vlado Golob, became in charge, the school moved to its current location on Mladinska 12 and changed its name to Centre for Music Education (Center za glasbeno vzgojo), which was the first establishment of this kind in Yugoslavia. In 1977, the choreographer Iko Otrin founded The Ballet Elementary School (Nižja baletna šola), which became part of the Centre. In September of the same year, the Centre was amalgamated with Tabor Music School and was renamed Institute for Music and Ballet education (Zavod za glasbeno in baletno izobraževanje), a year later the school changed its name again into School for music and ballet education (Šola za glasbeno in baletno izobraževanje). From 1977 to 1979 Stane Jurgec was the principal, followed by Majda Jecelj. In 1981 the school was renamed again, it was called Secondary School of Music and Ballet (Srednja glasbena in baletna šola). Majda Jecelj, who led the school for 12 years, was succeeded by Zorana Cotič. She was in charge of the school from 1992 to 1996 when Anton Gorjanc was named a principal. He held the position of the head until 2009. In the school year 1996/97, art grammar school programme was introduced into secondary school.
Helena Meško, who became the principal in 2009, has been leading the institution since then. In 2010, the school renamed once again and became The Maribor Conservatory of Music and Ballet.
In almost seven decades the school became one of the largest and most significant music and education establishments in the country. Many graduates became eminent musicians, ballet dancers, heads of music institutions and successful teachers.With countless concerts, projects and competitions the school continues to contribute to the music life of Maribor and its surroundings.